"Animation of Deformable Bodies with Quadratic Bézier Finite Elements"

In this paper, we investigate the use of quadratic finite elements for graphical animation of deformable bodies. We consider both integrating quadratic elements with conventional linear elements to achieve a computationally efficient adaptive-degree simulation framework as well as wholly quadratic elements for the simulation of non-linear rest shapes. In both cases, we adopt the Bézier basis functions and employ a co-rotational linear strain formulation. As with linear elements, the co-rotational formulation allows us to precompute per-element stiffness matrices, resulting in substantial computational savings. We present several examples that demonstrate the advantages of quadratic elements in general and our adaptive-degree system in particular. Furthermore, we demonstrate, for the first time in computer graphics, animations of volumetric deformable bodies with non-linear rest shapes.

A. W. Bargteil and E. Cohen
"Animation of Deformable Bodies with Quadratic Bézier Finite Elements."
ACM Transactions on Graphics, May 2014, Vol. 33, No 3.

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